Cover Image

Analysis of macro and micro elemental composition of different extracts and finished products of the medicinal Herb – Terminalia bellirica

Conjeevaram J. Gunasekar, Imad A. Abu-Yousef, Srinivasan Narasimhan, Amin F. Majdalawieh

Abstract


Terminalina bellirica is considered to be a sacred plant with five distinctive tastes (sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and pungent). It stimulates the proper functioning of the digestive system, sensory organs and it is very effective in treating several medical conditions. Four types of extracts were prepared (aqueous extracts of T. bellirica fruit, alcoholic extract of T. bellirica fruit, alcoholic extract of seed oil from T. bellirica nuts, and alcoholic extract of T. bellirica seed kernel). The elemental composition of T. bellirica was determined by ICP-OES. Macro elements like Ca (calcium), Na (sodium), and K (potassium) were found to be abundant in the studies samples. The quantity of Ca, Na, and K in the aqueous extracts of T. bellirica fruit, finished products of T. bellirica, alcoholic extract of T. bellirica fruit, alcoholic extract of seed oil from T. bellirica nuts, and alcoholic extract of  T. bellirica seed kernel was found to be (723.51-787.39, 347.80-478.90, 50.72, 120, and 300 mg/kg), (603.45-636.79, 241.76-370.00, 9.58, 180, and 200 mg/kg), and (151.23-165.73, 132.70-154.40, 4.26, 200, and 1,150 mg/kg), respectively. An Na/K ratio < 1.0 could prevent high blood pressure. The Na/K ratio in the alcoholic extract of T. bellirica fruit was found to be 0.51. Similarly, a Ca/P ratio > 1.0 is biologically relevant as a Ca/P ratio < 0.5 correlates with several health problems. The Ca/P ratio in the alcoholic extract of T. bellirica fruit was found to be 6.68. Hence, the measured Na/K and Ca/P ratios are in agreement with the recommended ratios. Our study supports the claims that T. bellirica extracts and finished products are of considerable therapeutic value for the prevention and/or treatment of various medical conditions. Moreover, the findings of our study will be helpful to ensure the quality and verify purification of natural products in different ayurvedic formulations.


Full Text:

PDF

References


- R.M. Kunwar, L. Mahat, L.N. Sharma, K.P. Shrestha, H. Kominee, R.W. Bussmann, Underutilized plant species in Far West Nepal, J Mountain Sci, 2012, 9(5), 589-600.

- A.K. Meena, P. Bansal, S. Kumar, Plants-herbal wealth as a potential source of ayurvedic drugs, Asian J Tradit Med, 2009, 4(4), 152-170.

- A. Deb, S. Barua, B. Das, Pharmacological activities of Baheda (Terminalia bellirica): a review, J Pharmacogn Phytochem, 2016, 5(1), 194-197.

- I.E. Cock, The medicinal properties and phytochemistry of plants of the genus Terminalia (Combretaceae), Inflammopharmacology, 2015, 23(5), 203-229.

- A. Gupta, R. Kumar, S. Kumar, A.K. Pandey, Pharmacological aspects of Terminalia bellirica, In: Molecular Biology and Pharmacognosy of Beneficial Plants (Eds. A.A. Mahdi, M. Abid, M.M.A.A. Khan, M.I. Ansari, R.K. Maheshwari), Lenin Media Private Limited: Delhi, India,2017, 52-64.

- V. Kasabri, P.R. Flatt, Y.H. Abdel-Wahab, Terminalia bellirica stimulates the secretion and action of insulin and inhibits starch digestion and protein glycation in vitro, Br J Nutr, 2010, 103(2), 212-217.

- A. Jadon, M. Bhadauria, S. Shukla, Protective effect of Terminalia bellirica Roxb. and gallic acid against carbon tetrachloride induced damage in albino rats, J Ethnopharmacol, 2007, 109(2), 214-218.

- H.N. Siddiqu, Studies on Terminalia bellirica Roxb., effect on bile secretion and pharmacodynamic properties, Indian J Pharmcol, 1963, 25(9), 297-302.

- M.P. Singh, A. Gupta, S.S. Sisodia, Ethno and modern pharmacological profile of Baheda (Terminalia bellirica): a review, Pharmaceut Chem J, 2018, 5(1), 153-162.

- V.P. Trivedi, S. Nesamany, V.K. Sharma, A clinical study of the anti-tussive and anti-asthmatic effect of Vibhitakphal Churna (Terminalia bellirica Roxb.) in the cases of Kasa-Swasa, J Res Ayurveda Siddha, 1979, 3(1-2), 1-8.

- S. Kaur, S. Arora, K. Kaur, S. Kumar, The in vitro antimutagenic activity of Triphala-an Indian herbal drug, Food Chem Toxicol, 2002, 40(4), 527-534.

- M.C. Sabu, R. Kuttan, Anti-diabetic activity of medicinal plants and its relationship with their antioxidant property, J Ethnopharmacol, 2002, 81(2), 155-160.

- J. Kuriakose, H.R. Lal, B. Eldhose, M.S. Latha, Comparative antioxidant properties of Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. fruit extract: a component of ayurvedic formulation ‘Triphala’, Int J Pharm Pharmaceut Res, 2016, 7(4), 310-320.

- A.V. Singh, H. Asha, Antioxidant activity of Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. of Tawang, Arunachal Pradesh, India, J Bioresources, 2017, 4(2), 65­72.

- H.P. Shaila, A.L. Udupa, S.L. Udupa, Preventive actions of Terminalia bellirica in experimentally induced atherosclerosis, Int J Cardiol, 1995, 49(2), 101-106.

- M. Tariq, S.J. Hussain, M. Asif, M Jahan, Protective effect of fruit extracts of Emblica officinalis (Gaertn) and Terminalia bellirica (Roxb.) in experimental myocardial necrosis in rats, Indian J Exp Biol, 1997,5(6), 485-486.

- A. Amalraj, S. Gopi, Medicinal properties of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) Wight & Arn.: A review, Medicinal properties of Terminalia Arjuna (Roxb.) Wight & Arn.: a review, J Tradit Complement Med, 2017, 7(1), 65-78.

- N. Kumar, S.M.P. Khurana, Phytochemistry and medicinal potential of the Terminalia bellirica Roxb. (Bahera), Indian J Nat Prod Resour, 2018, 9(2), 97-107.

- S. Muhammad, B.A. Khan, N. Akhtar, T. Mahmood, A. Rasul, I. Hussain, H. Khan, A. Badshah, The morphology, extractions, chemical constituents and uses of Terminalia chebula: a review, J Med Plants Res, 2012, 6(29), 4772-4775.

- F.A. Ayoob, H.M. Awad, S.M. El-Kousy, K.N. Rashed, N.H. Al-Sayed, Phytochemical and biological investigations of Terminalia bellirica Roxb. leaves, J Pharm Res, 2014, 8(4), 500-510.

- M.N. Saraswathi, M. Karthikeyan, M. Kannan, S. Rajasekar, Terminalia bellirica Roxb - a phytopharmacological review, Int J Res Pharm Biomed Sci, 2012, 3(1), 96-99.

- G.M. Kumar, I. Neelam, A. Ajitha, V. Maheshwara Rao, inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectroscopy: an overview, Int J Pharm Res Anal, 2014, 4(8), 470-477.

- R.N. Yadav, K. Rathore, A new cardenolide from the roots of Terminalia Arjuna Fitoterapia, 2001, 72(4), 459-461.

- J.G. Penland, Dietary Boron, brain function, and cognitive performance, Environ Health Perspect, 1994, 102(7), 65-72.

- K. Kawata, H. Yokoo, R. Shimazaki, S. Okabe, Classification of heavy-metal toxicity by human DNA microarray analysis, Environ Sci Technol, 2007, 41(10), 3769-3774.

- V. Singh, Medicinal plants and bone healing, Natl J Maxillofac Surg, 2017, 8(1), 4-11.

- I.E. Akubugwo, N.A. Obasi, G.C. Chinyere, A.E. Ugbogu, Nutritional and chemical value of Amaranthus hybridus L. leaves from Afikpo, Nigeria, Afr J Biotechnol, 2007, 6(24), 2833-2839.

- K. Maresz, Proper Calcium use: vitamin K2 as a promoter of bone and cardiovascular health, Integr Med (Encinitas), 2015, 14(1), 34-39.

- B.E. Nordin, Osteoporosis and Calcium deficiency, Proc Nutr Soc, 1960, 19(2), 129-137.

- A.M. Al Alawi, S.W. Majoni, H. Falhammar, Magnesium and human health: perspectives and research directions, Int J Endocrinol, 2018, 2018, 1-18.

- J.A. Pennington, Intakes of minerals from diets and foods: is there a need for concern? J Nutr, 1996, 126(9), 2304S-2308S.

- G.K. Schwalfenber, S.J. Genuis, The importance of Magnesium in clinical healthcare, Scientifica (Cairo), 2017, 2017, 4179326.

- O.T. Adepoju, E.O. Oyewole, Nutritional importance and micronutrient potentials of two non-conventional indigenous green leafy vegetables from Nigeria, Agric J, 2008, 3(5), 362-365.

- M.H. Alderman, Salt, blood pressure and health: a cautionary tale, Int J Epidemiol, 2002, 31(2), 311-315.

- Y. Pirahanchi, N.R. Aeddula, Physiology, sodium potassium pump (Na+ K+ pump), StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL), 2019.

- R. Lokhande, P. Singare, M. Andhale, Study of mineral content of some ayurvedic Indian medicinal plants by neutron activation analysis and AAS techniques, J Health Sci, 2010, 4(3), 169-181.

- F.O. Jimoh, A.A. Adedapo, A.J. Afolayan, Comparison of the nutritional value and biological activities of the acetone, methanol and

- water extracts of the leaves of Solanum nigrum and Leonotis leonorus, Food Chem Toxicol, 2010, 48(3), 964-971.

- E.I. Adeyeye, P.A. Aye, Chemical composition and the effect of salts on the food properties of Triticum durum whole meal flour, J Nutr, 2005, 4(3), 187-196.

- N.S. Rajurkar, B.M. Pardeshi, Analysis of some herbal plants from India used in the control of diabetes mellitus by NAA and AAS techniques, Appl Radiat Isot, 1997, 48(8), 1059-1062.

- R. Dessordi, M.A. Navarro, Boron action in bone

health, Rheumatol Orthop Med, 2017, 2(1), 1-3.

- R. Hurrell, I. Egli, Iron bioavailability and dietary reference vales, Am J Clin Nutr, 2010, 91(5), 1461S-1467S.

- A.H. Millar, J. Whelan, K.L. Soole, D.A. Day, Organization nd regulation of mitochondrial respiration in plants, Annu Rev Plant Biol, 2011, 62, 79-104.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.13171/mjc01912031128afm

Copyright (c) 2019 Mediterranean Journal of Chemistry