Cover Image

Identification and antioxidant activity of Ammi visnaga L. polyphenols from the Middle Atlas in Morocco

Jamila El Karkouri, Aziz Drioiche, Aminata Soro, Atika Ailli, Nadia Benhlima, Amal Bouzoubaa, Fadoua El Makhoukhi, Hamid Oulhaj, Ferdinand Kouoh Elombo, Touriya Zair


In this work, we are interested in both the study of the phenolic compounds and the evaluation of the antioxidant properties of the extracts of Ammi visnaga L. collected from the Middle Atlas in Morocco. Phytochemical screening was carried out to highlight the qualitative composition of the secondary metabolites contained in this plant. Also, the extraction of total polyphenols was carried out by maceration using hydromethanolic and hydroacetonic mixtures. Then, the fractionation of the crude extracts was conducted by liquid-liquid extraction using successively two organic solvents with different polarities: ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The polyphenols contents were spectrophotometrically estimated using the Folin-Ciocalteau method. It showed that the ethyl acetate fraction is more abundant in phenolic compounds than the other fractions. The qualitative analysis was performed by high-pressure liquid chromatography with U.V. and electrospray ionization coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC/UV-ESI-MS), which confirmed the richness of this species in polyphenols and particularly in flavonoids, especially by the identification of kaempferol, rhamnetin, biochanin A, ammiol. These molecules belong to flavones, flavonols, and furochromones, which are also identified both in the form of genin and of heteroside. The antioxidant activity of the different fractions was evaluated by diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH). The IC50 is equal to 12.87 μg / mL for the ethyl acetate fraction, against 8.8 μg / mL for ascorbic acid and 10.8 μg / mL for BHA which are used as reference compounds.

Full Text:



- N. M. Yasin, M. Abou-Taleb, Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of marjoram and thyme in coated refrigerated semi fried mullet fish fillets, World J. Dairy Food Sci., 2007, 2, 1-9.

- A. Keddad, A. Baaliouamer, M. Hazzit, Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from Umbels of Algerian Ammi visnaga (L.), J. Essent. Oil Bear. Plants, 2016, 19, 1243-1250.

- A. E. Al-Snafi, Chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of ammi majus and Ammi visnaga. A review, Int. J. Pharm & Ind. Res., 2013, 3, 257–265.

- P. A. Balch, Prescription for herbal healing, Penguin, 2002.

- M. W. Quimby, Ammi visnaga L. Lam. A Medicinal Plant, Econ. Bot., 1953, 89–92.

- C. Bohuon, C. Monneret, C. Monneret, Fabuleux hasards : histoire de la découverte de médicaments, éditions EDP SCIENCES, 2009.

- B. Boullard, Dictionnaire, plantes médicinales du monde: croyance et réalité, edition ESTEM : Paris, 2001.

- M. Hmamouchi, Les plantes médicinales et aromatiques marocaines : utilisation, biologie, écologie, chimie, pharmacologie, toxicologie, lexiques, 2ème édition, 2001.

- N. Khalil, M. Bishr, S. Desouky, O. Salama, Ammi Visnaga L., a Potential Medicinal Plant: A Review, Molecules, 2020, 25, 301.

- Z. Khan, A. Assiri, H. Al-Afghani, T. Maghrabi, Inhibition of oxalate nephrolithiasis with Ammi visnaga L.(Al-Khillah), International urology and nephrology, 2001, 33, 605-608.

- B. Phyllis, Prescription for Herbal Healing, 2nd edition: An Easy-to-Use A-to-Z Reference to Hundreds of Common Disorders and Their Herbal Remedies Paperback Published by the Penguin Group, 2002.

- P. Vanachayangkul, N. Chow, S. R. Khan, V. Butterweck, Prevention of renal crystal deposition by year extract of Ammi visnaga L.L. and its constituents and visnagin in hyperoxaluric rats, Urological Research, 2011, 39, 183-195.

- F. Meiouet, S. El Kabbaj, M. Daudon, In vitro study of the activity litholytique of four medicinal plants vis-a-vis the urinary calculations of cystine, Progress in urology, 2011, 21, 40-47.

- R. Bencheraiet, H. Kherrab, A. Kabouche, Z. Kabouche, M. Jay, The flavonols and antioxidant activity of Ammi visnaga L. (Apiaceae). Records of natural products, 2011, 5, 52-55.

- A. Ashour, S, El-Sharkawy, M. Amer, F. Abdel Bar, A. Mera, T. Nagata, R. Kondo, K. Shimizu, Biotransformation of Khellin to Khellol by and the Evaluation of their Biological Activities, The Open Bioactive Compounds Journal, 2013, 4,


- K. Ammor, B. Dalila, J. Sanae, A. Chaqroune, F. M. Fatima, Total Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Power of Ammi visnaga L. from Morocco, Der Pharma Chemica, 2017, 9, 73-78.

- J. Bruneton, Pharmacognosie, Phytochimie et plantes médicinales : Technique et Documentation, 4ème Edition, 2009, 279-281.

- A. Sofowora, Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa; edition John Wiley and Its; Chichester: New York, 1982, 256.

- V. L. Singleton, J. A. Rossi, colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic- phosphotungstic acid reagents, American Journal of Technology and viticulture, 1965, 16,


- A. Sabry, A. El-Said, S. El-Zayat, F. Abdel-Motaal, T. Magraby, Fungal contamination of Ammi visnaga seeds, antimicrobial activity of the plant seeds secondary metabolites and detection of alkaloids and non-alkaloids compounds, International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 2014, 3, 901-914.

- K. N. Soro, L. Sabri, S. Amalich, Y. Khabbal,

T. Zaïr, Chemical composition of Moroccan Ammi visnaga L. (Lam.) and antibacterial activity of its essential oil against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing and not producing bacteria, Phytothérapie. 2015, 13, 168-175.

- N. A. Jaradat, M. Abu Al Hasan, M. Al-Masri, R. I. Speih, M. A. Johari, M. A. Awad, Phytochemical Screening and In-vitro Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of the Entire Khella Plant (Ammi visnaga. L.) A member of Palestinian Flora, Int. J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochem. Res, 2015, 7, 137-143.

- Y. Ez Zoubi, F. El-Akhal, A. Farah, K. Taghzouti, A. El Ouali Lalami, Phytochemical Screening and Larvicidal Activity of Moroccan Ammi visnaga L.Against Larvae West Nile Vector Mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), Int. J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochem. Res, 2016, 8, 1684-1688.

- T. Abdul-Jalil, K. Saour, A. Nasser, Phytochemical Study of some Flavonoids Completing present in the Fruits of Two Ammi L. Species wildly grown in Iraq, Iraqi J Pharm Sci, 2010, 19, 48-57.

- W. Brand-Williams, M. E. Cuvelier, C. Berset, Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity, LWT - Food Sci. Technol, 1995, 28, 25-30.

- A. Prakash, Analytical Progress Medallion Laboratories Antioxidant Activity what are antioxidants, 2001, 19(2).

- S. Karouche, S. Khaldi, A. Benbott, Phytochemical, Free Radical Scavenging and Antimicrobial Activities of the Maize Stigmas, Collected of Ain Mlila (East Algeria), World J Environ Biosci., 2018, 7, 35-40.

- L. Majhenic, M. Skerget, Z. Knez, Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of guarana seed extracts, Food Chem, 2007,104, 1258-1268.

- K. Zhou, L. Yu, Effects of extraction solvent on wheat bran antioxidant activity estimation, LWT, Food Sci. Tech, 2004, 37, 717-721.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Mediterranean Journal of Chemistry