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Assessment of microbial and level of Cadmium, Chromium and Lead contamination on drinking water refilling station in Bungus Teluk Kabung, West Sumatera, Indonesia

Azimatur Rahmi, Rahma Yulia, Asmaul Husna, Amelia Amir

Abstract


Refill drinking water is a choice of drinking water, especially for the middle-income community due to the convenience and affordable price. Many studies in Indonesia reported that drinking water from drinking water refilling stations is less safe or contaminated by coliform. This study assessed the microbial and level of several heavy metals (Cadmium, chromium, and Lead) contamination on refill drinking water from drinking water refilling station in Bungus Teluk Kabung West Sumatera, Indonesia. It found that Cadmium, Chromium, and Lead were detected in all samples. Still, none of their levels exceed the maximum permissible limits based on the guideline value on Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia number 492/MENKES/PER/IV/2010. Lead was found as the highest amount in sample B and then Chromium in sample A with values of 0.367 ppb and 0.143 ppb. The microbial contamination presence in all three refill drinking water samples with the total coliform was 28, 15, and 240 MPN per 100 ml for samples A, B, and C. Sample C has the highest microbial risk compare to A and B. The presence of E. Coli was also confirmed for all samples, and the metallic sheen identified it in all culture samples. Because the standard of the microbial parameter must be zero for coliform and E. Coli, these results revealed that all three refill drinking water samples from drinking water refilling stations Bungus Teluk Kabung are not eligible for direct consumption and could harm human health. The proper water treatment process or change in raw water sources need to be considered in the future. Inspection and monitoring from the health authority should be scheduled regularly to protect the consumers.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.13171/mjc02106041571aa

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