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Phenolic compounds and biological activities of ethanolic extract from Capsicum chinense unripe fruit (var. bode pepper)

Mayker Miranda, Lauriane Santos, Cassia Fernandes, Larissa Santos, Ana Candido, Lizandra Magalhães, Géssica Andrade, Regina Pires

Abstract


Peppers (Capsicum sp.) are special to produce spices due to their fruit's color and active principles, which bestow aroma and flavor. This study aimed to analyze phenolic compounds found in an ethanolic extract from Capsicum chinense unripe fruit (var. bode pepper) (henceforth, EE-BP) by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and at investigating their in vitro leishmanial, antifungal, and cytotoxic potential. Several phenolic compounds were analyzed in EE-BP, such as gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, gentisic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, kaempferol-3-O-robinobiosideo, naringenin, capsaicin, and dihydrocapsaicin. EE-BP exhibited activity against promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis (IC50 = 23.82 µg/mL) and was highly active against Candida glabrata (MIC = 50 µg/mL), C. parapsilosis (MIC = 62.5 µg/mL), C. krusei (MIC = 100 µg/mL) and C. tropicalis (MIC =       125 µg/mL). Besides, EE-BP revealed high toxicity against Artemia salina (LC50 = 70.5 µg/mL). Results showed, for the first time, that EE-BP has antiparasitic, antifungal, and cytotoxic potential, which can be better investigated by further preclinical and clinical (in vivo) studies.


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.13171/mjc02205121623miranda

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