Cover Image

Removal of toluidine blue by manganese/graphene coated titaniferous sand and optimization of decolouration process via Box-Behnken design

Mohamed Abbaz


An adequate modification of a titaniferous sand fraction by manganese/graphene coating (GMnTS) was carried out. Indeed, the surface of titaniferous sand (TS) with a particle size less than 100 μm was functionalized by chemical precipitation of manganese oxide on which were coated graphene oxide nano-sheets. Modified Hummer method was used to produce a stable suspension of graphene oxide. In this study, the adsorption affinity was tested using toluidine blue (BT) as an aquatic contaminant. According to the Langmuir model, GMnTS has an adsorption capacity about 12 times higher than that of unmodified titaniferous sand. This is a coating rate of about 0.73 ± 0.02 %. The response surface methodology based on Box–Behnken design was applied to optimize the linear and interactive effects of four factors (BT concentration, pH, solid/liquid ratio and KCl concentration) influencing the discoloration process by GMnTS.

Full Text:



S. B. Bukallah, M.A. Rauf, Removal of Methylene Blue from aqueous solution by adsorption on sand. Dye Pigment., 2007, 74(1), 85-87.

A. Mawad, N. Yousef, A. Shoreit. Robust Aspergillus terreus biofilm supported on graphene oxide/hematite-nanocomposites for adsorption of anthraquinone dye. Desalin Water Treat., 2016, 57(51), 24341-24351.

W. Hou, Y. Zhang, T. Liu, Graphene oxide coated quartz sand as a high performance adsorption material in the application of water treatment. RSC Adv., 2015, 5(11), 8037-8043.

W. Gao, M. Majumder, L. Alemany, Engineered Graphite Oxide Materials for Application in Water Purification. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces., 2011, 3(6), 1821-1826.

P. Liua, S. Guoa, M. Liana. Improving water-injection performance of quartz sand proppant by surface modification with surface-modified nanosilica. Colloids Surfaces A Physicochem Eng Asp., 2015, 114-119.

X. Men, B. Ge, P. Li, X. Zhu, X. Shi, Facile fabrication of superhydrophobic sand: Potential advantages for practical application in oil-water separation. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng., 2016, 60, 651-655.

M. Marquez, Different methods for surface modification of hydrophilic particulates with polymers. Colloids Surfaces A Physicochem Eng Asp., 2005, 266, 18-31.

K.L. Pickering, The effect of silane coupling agent on iron sand for use in magnetorheological elastomers Part 1: Surface chemical modification and characterization. Compos Part A Appl Sci Manuf., 2015, 68, 377-386.

M. Ma, Y. Zhang, W. Yu, H. Shen, H. Zhang, N. Gu, Preparation and characterization of magnetite nanoparticles coated by amino silane. Colloids Surfaces A Physicochem Eng Asp., 2003, 212, 219-226.

T. Feng, F. Zhang, J. Wang LW. Application of chitosan-coated quartz sand for Congo red adsorption from aqueous solution. J Appl Polym Sci., 2012, 125(3), 1766-1772.

W. Hummers, R. Offeman, Preparation of Graphitic Oxide. J Am Chem Soc., 1958, 80(6), 1339-1339.

N. Zaaba, K. Foo, U. Hashim, S. Tan, W. Liu, C. Voon, Synthesis of Graphene Oxide using Modified Hummers Method: Solvent Influence. Procedia Eng., 2017, 184(184), 469-477.

R. Han, W. Zou, Z. Zhang, J. Shi, J. Yang. Removal of copper(II) and lead(II) from aqueous solution by manganese oxide coated sand: I. Characterization and kinetic study. J Hazard Mater., 2006, 137(1), 384-395.

C. Giles, A. D’Silva, I. Easton, A general treatment and classification of the solute adsorption isotherm part. II. Experimental interpretation. J Colloid Interface Sci., 1974, 47(3), 766-778.

Z. Ioannou, C. Karasavvidis, A. Dimirkou, V. Antoniadis. Adsorption of methylene blue and methyl red dyes from aqueous solutions onto modified zeolites. Water Sci Technol., 2013, 67(5):1129.

M. K. Mokhlif, A.H. Taha. Adsorption of Reactive Blue Dye onto Natural and Modified Wheat Straw. Am J Chem Eng., 2016, 4(1), 1-6

T. Feng, F. Zhang, J. Wang LW. Application of chitosan-coated quartz sand for Congo red adsorption from aqueous solution. J Appl Polym Sci., 2012, 125(3), 1766-1772.

F. Ferrero, Adsorption of Methylene Blue on magnesium silicate: Kinetics, equilibria and comparison with other adsorbents. J Environ Sci., 2010, 22(3), 467-473.


Copyright (c) 2018 Mediterranean Journal of Chemistry