Cover Image

Solid-Phase Separation and Green Removal of Amprolium Hydrochloride Veterinary Drug from Aqueous Media Using Dolomiaea Costus Roots as New Biosorbent

Amr Mohamed


The roots of the Dolomiaea costus (SCO) plant were used as a new, low-cost, eco-friendly, and efficient biosorbent for the removal of Amprolium hydrochloride (AMP) antibacterial veterinary drug residues from aqueous media. The effect of different parameters, such as the initial concentration of AMP, pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, and temperature, was investigated. The results showed that the best removal of the AMP drug by SCO was reached at a pH of 3.6 at a contact time of 80 min by a sorbent dosage of 0.04 g at a temperature of 45°C. Adsorption isotherm studies indicated that the AMP removal correlates more with the Freundlich isotherm with R2= 0.991. The maximum adsorption capacity has reached 83% based on the adsorption isotherm studies. The kinetics studies showed that adsorption follows a pseudo-second-order model with R2 = 0.999. The thermodynamic studies showed that the adsorption process of AMP on SCO is spontaneous in nature and exothermic, with an increase in randomness during the adsorption.

Full Text:



A. Hunduma, B. Kebede, Comparative study on the efficacy of amprolium and sulfadimidine in coccidia infected chickens in Debre-Zeit agricultural research center poultry farm, Bishoftu, Ethiopia, SOJ Veterinary Sciences, 2016, 2, 1-5.

D.W. Duszynski, J. Kvičerová, R.S. Seville, The biology and identification of the Coccidia (Apicomplexa) of carnivores of the world, Academic Press, 2018,

A. Ashraf, R. Shahardar, K. Bulbul, Z. Wani,

I. Allaie, A. Mir, Efficacy of amprolium against coccidiosis of goats in central Kashmir, J Entomol Zool Stud., 2020, 8, 1667-1670.

D.W. Duszynski, L. Couch, The biology and identification of the Coccidia (Apicomplexa) of rabbits of the world, Newnes, 2013.

M. Ghanem, S. Abu-Lafi, Validation of a stability-indicating assay of amprolium hydrochloride in water-soluble powder formulation using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography, Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 2013, 3, 051-058.

A.K. Sarmah, M.T. Meyer, A.B. Boxall, A global perspective on the use, sales, exposure pathways, occurrence, fate and effects of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) in the environment, Chemosphere, 2006, 65, 725-759.

J.P. Paula, P.V. Leal, R.C. Pupin, S.C. Lima, M.A. Souza, A.A. Santos, R.A. Lemos, D.C. Gomes, Healing of brain lesions in sheep recovered from amprolium-induced polioencephalomalacia, Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira, 2018, 38, 806-810.

O. Bansal, Antibiotics in hospital effluents and their impact on the antibiotics resistant bacteria and remediation of the antibiotics: A review, Network Pharmacology, 2019, 4, 6-30.

S. Abdelaziz, S. Abdel Razeq, N. Ahmed, Smart UV-Spectrophotometric methods for the simultaneous determination of amprolium-HCl, ethopabate and sulfaquinoxaline-Na in combined dosage forms, Azhar International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Sciences, 2021, 1, 63-71.

A.M. El-Kosasy, L.A. Hussein, N. Magdy, M.M. Abbas, Sensitive spectrofluorimetric methods for determination of ethopabate and amprolium hydrochloride in chicken plasma and their residues in food samples, Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 2015, 150, 430-439.

M.M. Baker, D.S. El-Kafrawy, M.M. Abdel-Khalek, T.S. Belal, Comprehensive stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection method for simultaneous determination of amprolium hydrochloride and ethopabate in powder dosage form for veterinary use, Journal Of Separation Science, 2019, 42, 3340-3351.

M.A. Basha, M.K. Abd El-Rahman, L.I. Bebawy, M.Y. Salem, Novel potentiometric application for the determination of amprolium HCl in its single and combined dosage form and in chicken liver, Chinese Chemical Letters, 2017, 28, 612-618.

P.R. Warman, R.L. Thomas, C.T. Corke, E.T. Moran, Recovery and reactions of amprolium from poultry manure added to soil, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 1977, 9, 267-270.

A.M. Villalba, O. Núñez, E. Moyano, M.T. Galceran, Field amplified sample injection‐capillary zone electrophoresis for the analysis of amprolium in eggs, Electrophoresis, 2013, 34, 870-876.

Y.M. Issa, M.S. Rizk, A.F. Shoukry, E.M. Atia, Plastic membrane electrodes for amprolium, Microchimica Acta, 1998, 129, 195-200.

S. Ali, A. Abdelhalim, Removal of amprolium from water by roots and seeds ash of Salvadora persica, Journal of Taibah University for Science, 2020, 14, 1604-1612.

A. Mohamed, H.A. Hassanin, S. Ali, Removal of guaifenesin and amprolium drugs from wastewater using eco-friendly low-cost biopolymer: adsorption isotherms, kinetics models and thermodynamic studies, Desalination and Water Treatment, 2023, 304, 86-96.

M. Esmaeili Bidhendi, Z. Poursorkh, H. Sereshti, H. Rashidi Nodeh, S. Rezania, M. Afzal Kamboh, Nano-Size Biomass Derived from Pomegranate Peel for Enhanced Removal of Cefixime Antibiotic from Aqueous Media: Kinetic, Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Study, Int J Environ Res Public Health., 2020, 17, 4223.

M.H. Elsaim, Removal of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride from aqueous solution by pomegranate peel grown in Alziedab agricultural scheme-River Nile State, Sudan, Biochemistry, 2017, 5, 89-96.

T.G. Kebede, S. Dube, M.M. Nindi, Removal of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and carbamazepine from wastewater using water-soluble protein extracted from Moringa stenopetala seeds, Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 2018, 6, 3095-3103.

H.A. Ismael, L.H. Khdum, A.J. Lafta, Use of Iraqi cherry seeds in the removal of paracetamol and atenolol medicines from their aqueous solutions, International Journal of Science and Research, 2014, 3, 2290-2295.

L.G. Wang, G.B. Yan, Adsorptive removal of direct yellow 161dye from aqueous solution using bamboo charcoals activated with different chemicals, Desalination, 2011, 274, 81-90.

M.M. Pandey, S. Rastogi, A.K. Rawat, Saussurea costus: botanical, chemical and pharmacological review of an ayurvedic medicinal plant, Ethnopharmacol, 2007, 110, 379-90.

R.F.M. Elshaarawy, H.A. El-Azim, W.H. Hegazy, F.H.A. Mustafa, T.A. Talkhan, Poly(ammonium/ pyridinium)-chitosan Schiff base as a smart biosorbent for scavenging of Cu2+ ions from aqueous effluents, Polymer Testing, 2020, 83, 106244.

M.M. Pandey, S. Rastogi, A.K. Rawat, Saussurea costus: botanical, chemical and pharmacological review of an ayurvedic medicinal plant, J Ethnopharmacol., 2007, 110, 379-90.

R. Rai, R.L. Aryal, H. Paudyal, S.K. Gautam, K.N. Ghimire, M.R. Pokhrel, B.R. Poudel, Acid-treated pomegranate peel; An efficient biosorbent for the excision of hexavalent chromium from wastewater, Heliyon, 2023, 9, e15698.

B.D. Pant, D. Neupane, D.R. Paudel, P.C. Lohani, S.K. Gautam, M.R. Pokhrel, B.R. Poudel, Efficient biosorption of hexavalent chromium from water by modified arecanut leaf sheath, Heliyon, 2022, 8, e09283.

F.H.A. Mustafa, E.K.M. Gad ElRab, R.M. Kamel, R.F.M. Elshaarawy, Cost-effective removal of toxic methylene blue dye from textile effluents by new integrated crosslinked chitosan/aspartic acid hydrogels, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2023, 248, 125986.

S. Ali, B. Alharbi, Removal of xylenol orange from aqueous solution by adsorption on polyurethane foam, Algerian Journal of Natural Products, 2021, 9, 805-813.

M. Esmaeili Bidhendi, Z. Poursorkh, H. Sereshti, H. Rashidi Nodeh, S. Rezania, M. Afzal Kamboh, Nano-size biomass derived from pomegranate peel for enhanced removal of cefixime antibiotic from aqueous media: kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic study, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2020, 17, 4223.

S. Ali, S.M.A. Azeem, A. Naqvi, M.F. El-Shahat, A. Mohamed, Selective Separation and Preconcentration of Caffeine from Natural and Pharmaceutical Products using New Polyurethane Foams, Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2022, 58, 1-19.

B.R. Poudel, R.L. Aryal, S.K. Gautam, K.N. Ghimire, H. Paudyal, M.R. Pokhrel, Effective remediation of arsenate from contaminated water by zirconium modified pomegranate peel as an anion exchanger, Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 2021, 9, 106552.

I. Langmuir, The constitution and fundamental properties of solids and liquids. Part I. Solids, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1916, 38, 2221-2295.

H.M.F. Freundlich, Over the adsorption in solution, The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 1906, 57, 385-471.

F.H.A. Mustafa, H.A.E.A. Attia, R. Yahya, R.F.M. Elshaarawy, N. Hassan, Cellulose microfibrils-embedded sulfonated polyethersulfone for efficient Zn2+ ions removal from aqueous effluents, Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 2022, 186, 374-386.

Y.S. Ho, G. McKay, A Comparison of Chemisorption Kinetic Models Applied to Pollutant Removal on Various Sorbents, Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 1998, 76, 332-340.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Mediterranean Journal of Chemistry