Cover Image

Cistus monspeliensis extract as antioxidant and corrosion inhibitor of ordinary steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid medium

Sara Haida, Kaltoum Bakkouche, Moussa Ouakki, Mouhsine Galai, Abdelaziz Kribii, Mohamed Ebn Touhami, Mohammed Cherkaoui, Abderahim Kribii


The aim of this study is the valorization of the Cistus monspeliensis plant, native to North of Morocco, as antioxidant and corrosion inhibitor. Firstly, the plant is extracted by maceration in a mixture of water/acetone solvents. Phytochemical tests are carried out on the extract obtained. The antioxidant power of Cistus monspeliensis extract is evaluated by two methods: the test of reduction of the free radical DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) and that of Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization are used to study the anticorrosion effect of Cistus monspeliensis extract. The results showed that the extract, 27.6% yield, contains phenolic compounds in the form of flavonoids, hydrolysable and condensed tannins, saponins, reducing sugars and glycosides. This extract has an antioxidant capacity similar to that of ascorbic acid with an inhibition concentration of 0.077 mg/mL 0.102 mg/mL for DPPH and FRAP test, respectively. Tafel plots show that the extract is an excellent cathodic inhibitor. The maximum inhibition efficiency of 92 % was obtained with 0.25 g/L of the inhibitor at 298 k. The impedance plot is characterized by a single capacitive loop attributed to the charge transfer process. The results also showed that the inhibitor acts on the surface of the metal principally by adsorption, leading to the formation of a protective film limiting the corrosion of ordinary steel.

Full Text:



- M. Goyal, S. Kumar, I. Bahadur, C. Verma, E. E. Ebenso, Organic corrosion inhibitors for industrial cleaning of ferrous and non-ferrous metals in acidic solutions: A review, J Mol Liq, 2018, 256, 565–573.

- R. I. M. Asri, W. S. W. Harun, M. Samykano, N. A. C. Lah, S. A. C. Ghani, F. Tarlochan, M. R. Raza, Corrosion and surface modification on biocompatible metals: A review, Mater Sci Eng C, 2017, 77, 1261–1274.

- S. Mo, H.-Q. Luo, N.-B. Li, Plant extracts as “green” corrosion inhibitors for steel in sulphuric acid, Chem Pap, 2016, 70, 1–13.

- A. Sedik, D. Lerari, A. Salci, S. Athmani, K. Bachari, İ. H. Gecibesler, R. Solmaz, Dardagan Fruit extract as eco-friendly corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1 M HCl: Electrochemical and surface morphological studies, J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng, 2020, 107, 189–200.

- Y. Fang, B. Suganthan, R. P. Ramasamy, Electrochemical characterization of aromatic corrosion inhibitors from plant extracts, J Electroanal Chem, 2019, 840, 74–83.

- G. Bahlakeh, B. Ramezanzadeh, A. Dehghani, M. Ramezanzadeh, Novel cost-effective and high-performance green inhibitor based on aqueous Peganum harmala seed extract for mild steel corrosion in HCl solution: Detailed experimental and electronic/atomic level computational explorations, J Mol Liq, 2019, 283, 174–195.

- J. Halambek, I. Cindrić, A. Ninčević Grassino, Evaluation of pectin isolated from tomato peel waste as natural tin corrosion inhibitor in sodium chloride/acetic acid solution, Carbohydr Polym, 2020, 234, 1–33.

- A. El Moussaoui, F. Z. Jawhari, A. M. Almehdi, H. Elmsellem, K. Fikri Benbrahim, D. Bousta, A. Bari, Antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity of total polyphenols of Withania frutescens.L, Bioorganic Chem, 2019, 93, 1–18.

- S. Ait Lahcen, L. El Hattabi, R. Benkaddour, N. Chahboun, M. Ghanmi, B. Satrani, M. Tabyaoui, A. Zarrouk, Chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antifungal activity of Moroccan Cistus Creticus leaves, Chem Data Collect, 2020, 26, 1–20.

- M. Faustin, A. Maciuk, P. Salvin, C. Roos, M. Lebrini, Corrosion inhibition of C38 steel by alkaloids extract of Geissospermum leave in 1M hydrochloric acid: Electrochemical and phytochemical studies, Corros Sci, 2015, 92, 287–300.

- N. M’hiri, D. Veys-Renaux, E. Rocca, I. Ioannou, N. M. Boudhrioua, M. Ghoul, Corrosion inhibition of carbon steel in acidic medium by orange peel extract and its main antioxidant compounds, Corros Sci, 2016, 102, 55–62.

- A. Ehsani, M. G. Mahjani, M. Hosseini, R. Safari, R. Moshrefi, H. Mohammad Shiri, Evaluation of Thymus vulgaris plant extract as an eco-friendly corrosion inhibitor for stainless steel 304 in acidic solution by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, electrochemical noise analysis and density functional theory, J Colloid Interface Sci, 2017, 490, 444–451.

- A. A. Khadom, A. N. Abd, N. A. Ahmed, Xanthium strumarium leaves extracts as a friendly corrosion inhibitor of low carbon steel in hydrochloric acid: Kinetics and mathematical studies, South Afr J Chem Eng, 2018, 25, 13–21.

- B. Ngouné, M. Pengou, A. M. Nouteza, C. P. Nanseu-Njiki, E. Ngameni, Performances of Alkaloid Extract from Rauvolfia macrophylla Stapf toward Corrosion Inhibition of C38 Steel in Acidic Media, ACS Omega, 2019, 4, 9081–9091.

- H. Elmsellem, Y. E. Ouadi, M. Mokhtari, H. Bendaif, H. Steli, Abdelouahed, Aouniti, A. M. Almehdi, I. Abdel-Rahman, H. S. Kusuma, B. Hammouti, A Natural Antioxidant and an Environmentally Friendly Inhibitor of Mild Steel Corrosion: A Commercial Oil of Basil (OCIMUM BASILICUM L.), J Chem Techn Metall, 2019, 4, 742–749.

- M. Ben Harb, S. Abubshait, N. Etteyeb, M. Kamoun, A. Dhouib, Olive leaf extract as a green corrosion inhibitor of reinforced concrete contaminated with seawater, Arab J Chem, 2020, 1–11.

- A. Zaher, A. Chaouiki, R. Salghi, A. Boukhraz, B. Bourkhiss, M. Ouhssine, Inhibition of Mild Steel Corrosion in 1M Hydrochloric Medium by the Methanolic Extract of Ammi visnaga L. Lam Seeds, Int J Corros, 2020, 2020, 1–10.

- A. Dehghani, G. Bahlakeh, B. Ramezanzadeh, A detailed electrochemical/theoretical exploration of the aqueous Chinese gooseberry fruit shell extract as green and cheap corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in acidic solution, J Mol Liq, 2019, 282, 366–384.

- Z. Sanaei, M. Ramezanzadeh, G. Bahlakeh, B. Ramezanzadeh, Use of Rosa canina fruit extract as a green corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1M HCl solution: A complimentary experimental, molecular dynamics and quantum mechanics investigation, J Ind Eng Chem, 2019, 69, 18–31.

- F. Bouhlal, N. Labjar, F. Abdoun, A. Mazkour, M. Serghini-Idrissi, M. El Mahi, E. M. Lotfi, S. El Hajjaji, Electrochemical and Thermodynamic Investigation on Corrosion Inhibition of C38 Steel in 1M Hydrochloric Acid Using the Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Used Coffee Grounds, Int J Corros, 2020, 2020, 1–14.

- G. Mouhsine, K. Tarfaoui, M. Ouakki, M. Nehiri, M. E. Touhami, N. Barhada, M. Ouhssine, Valorization of the essential oil of Zingiber officinale by its Use as inhibitor against the corrosion of the carbon steel in acid medium hydrochloric acid 1M, Mediterr J Chem, 2019, 8, 17–24.

- R. Haldhar, D. Prasad, N. Bhardwaj, Surface Adsorption and Corrosion Resistance Performance of Acacia concinna Pod Extract: An Efficient Inhibitor for Mild Steel in Acidic Environment, Arab J Sci Eng, 2020, 45, 131–141.

- Z. Bensouda, E. H. El Assiri, M. Sfaira, M. Ebn Touhami, A. Farah, B. Hammouti, Extraction, Characterization and Anticorrosion Potential of an Essential Oil from Orange Zest as Eco-friendly Inhibitor for Mild Steel in Acidic Solution, J Bio- Tribo-Corros, 2019, 5, 1–20.

- A. Foda, H. Mosallam, A. El-Khateeb, M. Fakih, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Extract as Green Corrosion Inhibitor for Carbon Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Solutions, Prog Chem Biochem Res, 2019, 2, 120–133.

- J. S. Ribeiro, M. J. M. C. Santos, L. K. R. Silva, L. C. L. Pereira, I. A. Santos, S. C. da Silva Lannes, M. V. da Silva, Natural antioxidants used in meat products: A brief review, Meat Sci, 2019, 148, 181–188.

- S. Salekzamani, M. Ebrahimi-Mameghani, K. Rezazadeh, The antioxidant activity of artichoke ( Cynara scolymus ): A systematic review and meta-analysis of animal studies: Antioxidant activity of artichoke (Cynara Scolymus), Phytother Res, 2019, 33, 55–71.

- D. Stagos, Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts, Antioxidants, 2019, 9, 1–7.

- M. H. Khawory, A. Amat Sain, M. A. A. Rosli, M. S. Ishak, M. I. Noordin, H. A. Wahab, Effects of gamma radiation treatment on three different medicinal plants: Microbial limit test, total phenolic content, in vitro cytotoxicity effect and antioxidant assay, Appl Radiat Isot, 2020, 157, 1–42.

- S. Sethi, A. Joshi, B. Arora, A. Bhowmik, R. R. Sharma, P. Kumar, Significance of FRAP, DPPH, and CUPRAC assays for antioxidant activity determination in apple fruit extracts, Eur Food Res Technol, 2020, 246, 591–598.

- A. Ácsová, S. Martiniaková, J. Hojerová, Selectedin vitro methods to determine antioxidant activity of hydrophilic/lipophilic substances, Acta Chim Slovaca, 2019, 12, 200–211.

- M. Lewoyehu, M. Amare, Comparative evaluation of analytical methods for determining the antioxidant activities of honey: A review, Cogent Food Agric, 2019, 5, 1–24.

- S. M. S. S. A. Rifki, S. M. S.A.Rifki, S. O. S. Hassane, S. Haida, K. Bakkouche, A. Kribii, A. Kribii, Phytochemical Study and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Extracts of Plectranthus Aromaticus Originating in the Island of Great Comoros, J Pharm Pharm, 2019, 6, 83–88.

- A. Agnieszka Stępień, D. David Aebisher, D. Dorota Bartusik-Aebisher, Biological properties of Cistus species, Eur J Clin Exp Med, 2018, 16, 127–132.

- S. A. Mignacca, M. Mucciarelli, E. Colombino, E. Biasibetti, S. Muscia, B. Amato, V. D. M. L. Presti, I. Vazzana, A. Galbo, M. T. Capucchio, Cistus salviifolius Toxicity in Cattle, Vet Pathol, 2020, 57, 115–121.

- M. Latos-Brozio, A. Masek, Effect of Impregnation of Biodegradable Polyesters with Polyphenols from Cistus linnaeus and Juglans regia Linnaeus Walnut Green Husk, Polymers, 2019, 11, 1–17.

- D. D. Kiliç, B. Siriken, Ö. Ertürk, G. Tanrikulu, M. Gül, C. Baskan, Antibacterial, Antioxidant and DNA Interaction Properties of Cistus creticus L. Extracts, J Int Environ Appl Sci, 2019, 14, 110–115.

- K. Sayah, I. Marmouzi, H. Naceiri Mrabti, Y. Cherrah, M. E. A. Faouzi, Antioxidant Activity and Inhibitory Potential of Cistus salviifolius (L.) and Cistus monspeliensis (L.) Aerial Parts Extracts against Key Enzymes Linked to Hyperglycemia, BioMed Res Int, 2017, 2017, 1–7.

- K. Sayah, L. Chemlal, I. Marmouzi, M. El Jemli, Y. Cherrah, M. E. A. Faouzi, In vivo anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Cistus salviifolius (L.) and Cistus monspeliensis (L.) aqueous extracts, South Afr J Bot, 2017, 113, 160–163.

- J. Xiang, F. B. Apea-Bah, V. U. Ndolo, M. C. Katundu, T. Beta, Profile of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of finger millet varieties, Food Chem, 2019, 275, 361–368.

- Y. Jiao, S. Y. Quek, M. Gu, Y. Guo, Y. Liu, Polyphenols from thinned young kiwifruit as a natural antioxidant: Protective effects on beef oxidation, physicochemical and sensory properties during storage, Food Control, 2020, 108, 1–9.

- A. Piga, P. Duce, C. Cesaraccio, Phenological growth stages of Montpelier Rock-Rose Mediterranean shrub (Cistus monspeliensis): codification and description according to the BBCH scale, Ann Appl Biol, 2018, 172, 384–391.

- M. Bereksi, H. Hassaïne, C. Bekhechi, D. Abdelouahid, Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of some Medicinal Plants Extracts Commonly Used in Algerian Traditional Medicine against some Pathogenic Bacteria, Pharmacogn J, 2018, 10, 507–512.

- H. Karim, H. Boubaker, L. Askarne, I. Talibi, F. Msanda, E. H. Boudyach, B. Saadi, A. Ait Ben Aoumar, Antifungal properties of organic extracts of eight Cistus L. species against postharvest citrus sour rot, Lett Appl Microbiol, 2016, 62, 16–22.

- I. Cocan, E. Alexa, C. Danciu, I. Radulov, A. Galuscan, D. Obistioiu, A. A. Morvay, R. M. Sumalan, M.-A. Poiana, G. Pop, C. A. Dehelean, Phytochemical screening and biological activity of Lamiaceae family plant extracts, Exp Ther Med, 2018, 15, 1863–1870.

- K. Ngibad, Phytochemical Screening of Sunflower Leaf (Helianthus annuus) and Anting-Anting (Acalypha indica Linn) Plant Ethanol Extract, Borneo J Pharm, 2019, 2, 24–30.

- A. A. Tuama, A. A. Mohammed, Phytochemical screening and in vitro antibacterial and anticancer activities of the aqueous extract of Cucumis sativus, Saudi J Biol Sci, 2019, 26, 600–604.

- R. Gul, S. U. Jan, S. Faridullah, S. Sherani, N. Jahan, Preliminary Phytochemical Screening, Quantitative Analysis of Alkaloids, and Antioxidant Activity of Crude Plant Extracts from Ephedra intermedia Indigenous to Balochistan, Sci World J, 2017, 2017, 1–7.

- S. Haida, F. Essadik, A. Kribii, A. Habsaoui, O. Khadija, A. Benmoumen, A. Kribii, Study of Chemical Composition of Rosemary Essential Oil From Western Morocco and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Its Extracts, World J Pharm Res, 2015, 4, 307–323.

- C. Yin, L. Xie, Y. Guo, Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of Gentiana macrophylla extract against bacteria isolated from burn wound infections, Microb Pathog, 2018, 114, 25–28.

- F. Z. Essadik, S. Haida, A. Kribii, A. R. Kribii, K. Ounine, A. Habsaoui, Antioxidant activity of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara Peel from western of Morocco, identification of volatile compounds of its essential oil by GC-MS and a preliminary study of their antibacterial activity, Int J Innov Sci Res, 2015, 16, 425–432.

- Jo. Olugbami, M. Gbadegesin, O. A. Odunola, In vitro free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of Terminalia glaucescens, Pharmacogn Res, 2015, 7, 49–56.

- S. Gonçalves, T. Grevenstuk, N. Martins, A. Romano, Antioxidant activity and verbascoside content in extracts from two uninvestigated endemic Plantago spp, Ind Crops Prod, 2015, 65, 198–202.

- L. Estevinho, A. P. Pereira, L. Moreira, L. G. Dias, E. Pereira, Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of phenolic compounds extracts of Northeast Portugal honey, Food Chem Toxicol, 2008, 46, 3774–3779.

- M. Ouakki, M. Galai, M. Cherkaoui, E.-H. Rifi, Z. Hatim, Inorganic compound (Apatite doped by Mg and Na) as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in phosphoric acidic medium, Anal Bioanal Electrochem, 2018, 10, 943–960.

- A. Ostovari, S. M. Hoseinieh, M. Peikari, S. R. Shadizadeh, S. J. Hashemi, Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1M HCl solution by henna extract: A comparative study of the inhibition by henna and its constituents (Lawsone, Gallic acid, α-d-Glucose and Tannic acid), Corros Sci, 2009, 51, 1935–1949.

- H. Karim, H. Boubaker, L. Askarne, K. Cherifi, H. Lakhtar, F. Msanda, E. H. Boudyach, A. Ait Ben Aoumar, Use of Cistus aqueous extracts as botanical fungicides in the control of Citrus sour rot, Microb Pathog, 2017, 104, 263–267.

- A. Bouyahya, Determination of Phenol Content and Antibacterial Activity of Five Medicinal Plants Ethanolic Extracts from North-West of Morocco, J Plant Pathol Microbiol, 2016, 07,1–4.

- I. Hmid, D. Elothmani, H. Hanine, A. Oukabli, E. Mehinagic, Comparative study of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant attributes of eighteen pomegranates (Punica granatum L.) cultivars grown in Morocco, Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 2017, 10, 1–10.

- V. Viswanath, A. Urooj, N. G. Malleshi, Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of finger millet polyphenols (Eleusine coracana), Food Chem, 2009, 114, 340–346.

- A. Altemimi, R. Choudhary, D. G. Watson, D. A. Lightfoot, Effects of ultrasonic treatments on the polyphenol and antioxidant content of spinach extracts, Ultrason Sonochem, 2015, 24, 247–255.

- S. B. Nimse, D. Pal, Free radicals, natural antioxidants, and their reaction mechanisms, RSC Adv, 2015, 5, 27986–28006.

- M. C. Foti, Use and Abuse of the DPPH • Radical, J Agric Food Chem, 2015, 63, 8765–8776.

- M. Jabbari, A. Jabbari, Antioxidant potential and DPPH radical scavenging kinetics of water-insoluble flavonoid naringenin in an aqueous solution of micelles, Colloids Surf Physicochem Eng Asp, 2016, 489, 392–399.

- A. Dehghani, G. Bahlakeh, B. Ramezanzadeh, M. Ramezanzadeh, Potential of Borage flower aqueous extract as an environmentally sustainable corrosion inhibitor for acid corrosion of mild steel: Electrochemical and theoretical studies, J Mol Liq, 2019, 277, 895–911.

- P. Singh, S. S. Chauhan, G. Singh, M. A. Quraishi, Corrosion Inhibition by Green Synthesized Inhibitor: 4,4′-(1,4Phenylene)bis(6-amino-3-methyl-2,4dihydropyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole-5 carbonitrile) for Mild Steel in 0.5 M H2SO4 Solution, J Bio- Tribo-Corros, 2019, 5, 1–9.

- S. Cao, D. Liu, H. Ding, J. Wang, H. Lu, J. Gui, Corrosion inhibition effects of a novel ionic liquid with and without potassium iodide for carbon steel in 0.5 M HCl solution: An experimental study and theoretical calculation, J Mol Liq, 2019, 275, 729–740.

- M. A. Bedair, S. A. Soliman, M. A. Hegazy, I. B. Obot, A. S. Ahmed, Empirical and theoretical investigations on the corrosion inhibition characteristics of mild steel by three new Schiff base derivatives, J Adhes Sci Technol, 2019, 33, 1139–1168.

- Y. Qiang, S. Zhang, B. Tan, S. Chen, Evaluation of Ginkgo leaf extract as an eco-friendly corrosion inhibitor of X70 steel in HCl solution, Corros Sci, 2018, 133, 6–16.

- H. M. Elabbasy, A. S. Fouda, Olive leaf as a green corrosion inhibitor for C-steel in Sulfamic acid solution, Green Chem Lett Rev, 2019, 12, 332–342.

- M. Ouakki, M. Rbaa, M. Galai, B. Lakhrissi, E. H. Rifi, M. Cherkaoui, Experimental and Quantum Chemical Investigation of Imidazole Derivatives as Corrosion Inhibitors on Mild Steel in 1.0 M Hydrochloric Acid, J Bio- Tribo-Corros, 2018, 4, 1–14.

- T. Rabizadeh, S. K. Asl, Casein as a natural protein to inhibit the corrosion of mild steel in HCl solution, J Mol Liq, 2019, 276, 694–704.

- H. Derfouf, Y. Harek, L. Larabi, W. J. Basirun, M. Ladan, Corrosion inhibition activity of carbon steel in 1.0 M hydrochloric acid medium using Hammada scoparia extract: gravimetric and electrochemical study, J Adhes Sci Technol, 2019, 33, 808–833.

- E. B. Ituen, M. M. Solomon, S. A. Umoren, O. Akaranta, Corrosion inhibition by amitriptyline and amitriptyline based formulations for steels in simulated pickling and acidizing media, J Pet Sci Eng, 2019, 174,


- A. K. Singh, M. A. Quraishi, Effect of Cefazolin on the corrosion of mild steel in HCl solution, Corros Sci, 2010, 52, 152–160.

- O. Fergachi, F. Benhiba, M. Rbaa, M. Ouakki, M. Galai, R. Touir, B. Lakhrissi, H. Oudda, M. E. Touhami, Corrosion Inhibition of Ordinary Steel in 5.0 M HCl Medium by Benzimidazole Derivatives: Electrochemical, UV–Visible Spectrometry, and DFT Calculations, J Bio- Tribo-Corros, 2019, 5, 1–13.

- M. Dahmani, A. Et-touhami, S. S. Al-deyab, B. Hammouti, A. Bouyanzer, Corrosion Inhibition of C38 Steel in 1 M HCl: A Comparative Study of Black Pepper Extract and Its Isolated Piperine, 2010, 5.

- G. Khan, W. J. Basirun, S. N. Kazi, P. Ahmed, L. Magaji, S. M. Ahmed, G. M. Khan, M. A. Rehman, A. B. B. M. Badry, Electrochemical investigation on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel by Quinazoline Schiff base compounds in hydrochloric acid solution, J Colloid Interface Sci, 2017, 502, 134–145.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Mediterranean Journal of Chemistry